Ukrainian narodolyubets Oleksandr Tyshchynsky




The purpose of the article is to highlight the formation of the personality of O.A. Tyshchynsky (1835–1896) as a Ukrainian patriot of the second half of the XIX century. The research methods were historical-genetic, historical-typological, personalistic. Sources: archival documents from the funds of the Third Department of His Imperial Majesty’s Chancellery and the Special Presence of the Ruling Senate of the Russian Empire, published memoirs of MM Grinchenko and A. V. Verzyliv, S. F. Rusova, autobiographical notes of P. S. Efimenko, creative materials A. Tyshchynsky, epistolary by O. Ya. Konysky, A. P. Svydnytsky, etc. The main results are that the author found that the formation of the worldview of Olexander Tyshchynsky was influenced by several important ideological factors, including liberal ideas of renewal of society based on the establishment of the constitutional image of government; views of radical democracy, which were popularized by the «Kolokol» of O. I. Herzen and M. P. Ogarev; Ukrainian patriotic influences, which led to the formation of interest in Ukrainian folklore and literature, and especially the poetry of Taras Shevchenko. O.A. Tyshchynsky’s activity as a Ukrainian narodolyubets originated during his participation in the Kharkiv-Kyiv Secret Society (1856–1860), and was established in the early 1860s during his time in the Chernihiv Ukrainian community. As a Ukrainian national democrat, O.A. Tyshchynsky was engaged in pedagogical, journalistic and public national-cultural activities, although his radical-democratic sympathies conditioned ties with Russian landowners. In the 1870s and 1880s, the Ukrainian activist was among the most active organizers of the Chernihiv Public Book Collection and Bookstore. defended the interests of the people in the ranks of the Chernihiv district zemstvo, promoting the progress of public education, health care, etc. In the 1890s, O.A. Tyshchynsky was one of those figures who restored the Chernihiv Ukrainian community. Brief conclusions. It is proved that O.A. Tyshchynsky, despite the influence of Russian radical democracy, was formed as a figure of the Ukrainian national democratic movement, which from the early 1860s to the mid‑1890s belonged to the most prominent and authoritative Ukrainian patriots of Chernihiv region, made his contribution to the development of Ukrainian national culture in this region. The practical significance of the article is that its material will be of interest to students, graduate students, doctoral students and historians in the study of ethno-national and socio-political history of Ukraine in the XIX century. The originality of the article lies in the comprehension of little-studied aspects of the worldview and activity of the Ukrainian figure. Scientific novelty in the actualization of the life and work of O.A. Tyshchynsky as a Ukrainian national democrat of the second half of the XIX century. Article type: descriptive-analytical.