M. B. Divari (1921–1993) – Ukrainian researcher of zodiacal light and cosmic dust





The article investigates the life and creative path of one of the leading Ukrainian experts cutting-edge the field of research of zodiacal light, the contamination and inflow of cosmic matter into the Earth's atmosphere by the twilight sounding atmospheres, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor Nicolai Divari. The article is based on the documents of the State Archives of the Odessa region and the archives of the Odessa National Polytechnic University, the biographical method and method of source study analysis. The activity of a scientist as an employee of the Odessa Astronomical Observatory, Institute of Astronomy and Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, Odessa Polytechnic Institute is considered. The research highlights the participation of Nicolai Divari in the implementation of program for the search, collection and research of matter of cosmic dust initiated by Academician V. I. Vernadsky in the 30's and 40's of the last century. The program is of great interest to science, because its particles due to the small mass, when braking in the atmosphere, do not have time to heat up to the melting point, and reach the surface of Earth in the unchanged form and carry unobstructed information about the composition and structure of space dust.

Nicolai Divari was one of the first, who studied the zodiacal light and dust component of the interplanetary space. He took part in an expedition to study the location of the Sichote-Alin Meteorite, a scientific expedition of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1957) on the program of the International Geophysical Year for the observation of zodiacal light and optical properties of the Earth's atmosphere in The Libyan desert and two dozen similar expeditions. According to the results of observations in Egypt, Nicolai Divari has published a number of scientific works, in particular, co-authored with the Egyptian astrophysicist Adli Asaad. The article notes the creative collaboration between the scientist and Academician V. G. Fesenkov. The great organizational work of Professor Nicolai Divari on referencing all the literature published in the USSR and abroad on this scientific subject for Abstract Journal of Astronomy was analysed. He was a member of the International Astronomical Union, a head of the working group of the Astronomical Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences on the optical instability of the Earth's atmosphere.